• مقاله منتشر نشده UNEP در خصوص زباله های خطرآفرین

Harmful substances and hazardous waste United Nations Environment Programme An overview Much work remains to be done to understand and mitigate these negative impacts, such as widespread contamination of land, water and air. This work is especially critical today as new and potentially hazardous substances continue to emerge. The global economy is generating increasing amounts of hazardous waste in countries that lack the systems and resources for their proper management. This waste poses serious risks to people and the environment and has the potential to contaminate other non-hazardous waste and substances if it is not adequately controlled. Keeping the environment and people safe from harmful substances and hazardous waste goes beyond management. It means working to avoid these dangers entirely by removing them, wherever possible, from production and use. UNEP’s Harmful Substances and Hazardous Waste subprogramme assists countries and regions in managing the life cycles of chemical substances and waste that could pose a threat to the environment and human health. For more than 30 years, UNEP’s work has supported initiatives related to specific chemicals or to critical elements of their life cycles. UNEP’s work includes efforts to reduce risks from mercury, heavy metals, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other chemicals of global concern. Chemicals are an integral part of everyday life. There are over 100,000 different substances in use today. They play a role in every economic sector and nearly every industry, and many are critical to human wellbeing and sustainable development. Yet chemicals can also endanger human health and the environment if not managed properly. Our goals UNEP’s Harmful Substances and Hazardous Waste subprogramme has four key goals: • Scientific assessments: UNEP conducts global assessments of the environmental fate and exposure pathways of harmful substances, and raises awareness of these findings to help governments and others take action. • Legal instruments: UNEP assists governments to develop appropriate policy and control systems for harmful substances of global concern. • National implementation: UNEP provides the tools, methodologies and technical assistance to help States design, finance and implement national programmes that improve assessment and management of harmful substances and hazardous waste. • Monitoring and evaluation: UNEP promotes best practice, helping States monitor, evaluate and report on the progress of their national programmes. Harmful substances and hazardous waste Poverty alleviation Without good management practices, chemicals can pose significant risks to human health and the environment, especially the poorer populations who are most vulnerable to these negative effects. Certain chemicals restrict and interfere in human development and can impair both physical and mental growth, as well as ability to learn. The exposure pathways of chemicals may also impair critical ecosystem services such as clean water and safe food, where the poorest typically have the fewest choices. Sustainable development seeks to maximize the benefits of chemicals and to minimize the negative impacts of harmful substances and hazardous waste throughout their life cycles. 1 UNEP helps countries manage the life cycles of chemical substances and waste that could pose a threat to the environment and human health. What if countries could reduce risks from exposures to harmful substances by implementing sound chemicals management at all stages of production, use and disposal? What if global and national agendas were driven by accurate, up-to-date information on the full costs and benefits of chemicals and waste products? And what if we could use strong international agreements to address or eliminate the most harmful substances, supporting national action to protect our planet’s environmental resources and secure the livelihoods and health of future generations? UNEP’s Harmful Substances and Hazardous Waste subprogramme is working towards this vision during the 2010-13 period of UNEP’s Medium-term Strategy. The sub-programme is built on more than 30 years of work in the field and is a driving force behind the sound management of chemicals and hazardous waste. UNEP’s vision is based on delivering: Sound science that guides the agenda UNEP will continue to provide scientific assessments of the release, transport and fate, and overall impact on the environment from harmful substances. UNEP will offer critical information on emerging risks from harmful substances and hazardous waste to inform debate on issues of international concern. UNEP will seek to monitor the progress towards the objective of global sound management of chemicals. Effective management of chemicals and hazardous waste UNEP will assist States in the sound management of harmful substances and hazardous waste by delivering innovative approaches for all stages of their production, trade, use and disposal. UNEP will also provide leadership in promoting public access to information and knowledge on harmful substances and hazardous waste, raising awareness of their potential impacts on human health and the environment. Our vision for 2010-2013 Developing and implementing internationally agreed chemical management regimes UNEP will continue to support the development and implementation of internationally agreed chemicals management regimes through a range of services delivered globally, regionally and nationally. UNEP’s work will include efforts in relation to mercury; lead and cadmium; persistent organic pollutants; pesticides; and industrial chemicals used in manufacturing. This work will be delivered in close cooperation with the secretariats of the major international conventions on chemicals and waste that are hosted by UNEP. Harmful substances and hazardous waste 3 Scientific assessments UNEP assesses trends in the use, release and disposal of harmful substances around the world to inform policy and raise awareness of the need to take action. • Global assessments UNEP conducts global assessments of policies and trends in the use and release of chemicals and waste products. UNEP uses the outcomes of these reviews to provide policy- and science-based guidance to decision-makers on potential environmental risks and benefits. For example, UNEP is currently finalising scientific reviews of information on lead and cadmium which will inform discussions on the need for global action at the 26th session of the Governing Council in early 2011. • Raising awareness UNEP also uses these outcomes to raise awareness of potential adverse effects of chemicals, including hazardous waste, and address other emerging issues. Legal instruments UNEP helps governments use the data and information from these global assessments to make informed decisions on the need for concerted action. • Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) Adopted by the International Conference on Chemicals Management (ICCM) in 2006, the SAICM is an international, voluntary and multi-stakeholder framework to promote the sound management of chemicals. UNEP hosts the secretariat of the SAICM and plays a key role in its implementation. • International regimes UNEP supports the development and evolution of internationally agreed chemical management regimes. UNEP assists countries, secretariats and other stakeholders in their efforts to deal with highly hazardous substances. On the issue of mercury, for example, UNEP has raised awareness of the impact of its continued use and assisted governments in deciding on the concerted action needed. UNEP is now supporting the negotiation of a legally binding instrument to reduce risks to human health and the environment. • National laws and policies UNEP helps States to strengthen their legal and regulatory regimes, both to implement their obligations under international treaties, and to address national priorities in cases where national instruments are more appropriate than international regimes. Delivering our vision National implementation UNEP uses these scientific assessments and legal instruments as a basis for technical assistance and capacity building for States. This work helps States design and implement national programmes which support sound management of harmful substances and hazardous waste. • Technical tools and methodologies UNEP develops technical tools, methodologies and strategic frameworks for environmentally sound management of chemicals. UNEP helps States to adapt these methodologies to meet their specific needs. • Financial instruments and incentives UNEP provides States with guidance and financial instruments, such as incentives and trade policies, for integrating the sound management of harmful substances and hazardous waste into development policies and plans. The guidance and instruments ensure these efforts can be appropriately resourced. • Guidance and training UNEP develops guidance and provides training to help build the capacity of national governments to implement these management tools and instruments, especially in least developed countries and Small Island Developing States. • Business and industry partnerships UNEP uses its partnerships, including those with business and industry associations, to reach the wide range of stakeholders that handle harmful substances and hazardous waste. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), important in the economies of most developing countries, are a key target group. UNEP’s work on Harmful Substances and Hazardous Waste is focused on four core service areas: UNEP’s work reduces risks from mercury, pesticides, and other chemicals of global and international concern. Monitoring and evaluation UNEP helps governments monitor, evaluate and report on the impacts and progress of their systems for managing hazardous waste and harmful substances. • Tools and methods UNEP works with States to develop and implement methods for monitoring, evaluating and reporting on the progress of their programmes on harmful substances and hazardous waste. • Making the case UNEP helps States make the case for sound management of chemicals and hazardous waste, promoting best practice and increasing public access to information on impacts on human health and the environment. Delivering our vision continued The sub-programme is built on more than 30 years of work in the field and is a driving force behind the sound management of chemicals and hazardous waste. Disasters and conflicts Harmful substances and hazardous waste 5 Our key projects Mainstreaming Sound Management Ensuring attention and sustainable financing for the sound National $3.7 million management of harmful substances and hazardous waste as part of development policies and plans. Information Access and Exchange Regional, $1 million national Strengthening capacity to access and exchange national, regional and international information. Sound Production and Use of Chemicals Developing, testing and transferring the technical tools, National $2.8 million methodologies and frameworks necessary for the environmentally sound and safe production and use of chemicals. SME Partnerships for Sound Management Building the capacity of small- and medium-sized enterprises National $2 million (SMEs) to manage the harmful substances they use and the hazardous waste they generate. Environmentally Sound Management Providing technical tools for the environmentally sound National $1.5 million management of hazardous waste, initially focusing on the Cote d’Ivoire. Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management Secretariat Providing secretariat support to the Strategic Approach to Global $3.2 million International Chemicals Management (SAICM). Global Assessments Developing global assessments of the production, trade, use, Global $3.4 million impacts, management and control of harmful substances and hazardous waste to inform the international community. Risk Assessment and Management Global, $5.4 million national Reducing risks posed by chemicals and hazardous waste through coherent risk assessment and life-cycle management approaches, methodologies and guidance. Destruction Technologies Providing coherent information on technologies for the Regional $1.3 million destruction of harmful substances and hazardous waste and policy frameworks for their implementation. Reporting Progress Providing governments and the international community with Global $1.3 million the means to monitor, evaluate and report progress towards the sound management of harmful substances and hazardous waste. Global Mercury Programme Reducing the risks to environment and human health from Global $11.3 million anthropogenic releases of mercury. Addressing Risks from Lead and Cadmium Global, $1.7 million regional Reducing the anthropogenic uses of lead and cadmium in products and industry sectors that give rise to particular exposure concerns. Combating Illegal Trade Global, $2.2 million regional Reducing the illegal trafficking in harmful substances and hazardous waste, initially in the Asia-Pacific and West Asia regions. Strengthening the Chemicals and Waste MEAs Providing technical assistance to strengthen implementation Global $1 million and monitoring of the multilateral environmental agreements on chemicals and waste. Supporting Regional Seas Agreements Global, $4.3 million regional Preventing the further degradation of the marine environment from harmful substances and hazardous waste derived from land-based activities. Project title Project brief Geographic scope Budget (2010-2011) Sound management at the national level Sound science that guides the agenda Supporting multilateral policy and control systems Climate change Resource efficiency Disasters and conflicts Environmental governance Harmful substances and hazardous waste Ecosystem management Factsheets in this series United Nations Environment Programme Deputy Head: Chemicals Branch Dr. David Piper Division of Technology, Industry and Economics United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) International Environment House 15 Chemin des Anémones, CH-1219, Châtelaine Geneva Telephone: +41 (0)22 917 83 45 Email: david.piper@unep.org http://www.unep.org/hazardoussubstances/